2013 Frankfurt Motor Show and Toyota
Bart Eelen, Senior Manager for Toyota Europe talked to Lou Ann Hammond, CEO, www.drivingthenation.com, about the Toyota Yaris R concept at the 2013 Frankfurt auto show.
YARIS HYBRID-R DEDICATED TO Maximizing DRIVING PLEASURE
Making it’s World Premiere at the 2013 Frankfurt Motor Show, the Yaris Hybrid-R concept car combines the advanced technology of the compact volume seller Toyota Yaris Hybrid with high-performance engineering inspired by Toyota’s racing prototype, the TS030 HYBRID, which participated at Le Mans and in the World Endurance Championship. The result is a highly focused concept car dedicated to maximizing driving pleasure on-road and on track.
Brussels, Belgium –
Good to know
– A showcase of ideas for the future of hybrid technology
– Yaris HYBRID-R technology directly inspired by the TOYOTA Racing program in the FIA World Endurance Championship series
– An e-4WD hybrid vehicle with a maximum system output of 420hp
– A resolutely sportier and anticipatory execution of the Keen Look and Under Priority design philosophy
Hybrid technology is still young – with the first generation Toyota Prius appearing in 1997, just 16 years ago. As such, it still has it’s future ahead and a great potential to evolve in many different directions. Only recently, hybrid technology has started to appear in racing programs but is not yet fully established in people’s minds as a performance-oriented solution. The Yaris Hybrid-R concept car is a clear showcase of possible ideas for the development of hybrid technology for maximum performance and increased driving pleasure.
The Hybrid powertrain
Based on the Yaris 3-door, the Yaris Hybrid R concept hybrid powertrain configuration employs a powerful and highly tuned 1.6l petrol engine combined with two powerful electric motors to provide an ‘intelligent’ electric four-wheel drive capability.
The front wheels are driven by a 300hp 4-cylinder 1.6 turbo engine with direct injection specifically developed by Toyota Motorsport GmbH (TMG) according to the rules of the International Automobile Federation (FIA) for a Global Race Engine to be utilized in different motorsport disciplines.
The two electric motors work as electric generators during the braking phase and supplement the petrol engine during the accelerating phases.
Just like in the TS030 HYBRID, the energy recovered during the braking phase is stored in a supercapacitor. In the Yaris Hybrid-R, it is located under the rear seat, where the Yaris Hybrid battery is usually positioned. Compared to the standard NiMh hybrid battery, the supercapacitor has a higher power density and a fast power charge/discharge speed. It is perfectly suited to the requirements of sporty driving on the track, which requires brief and immediate bursts of power.
A 3rd 60hp electric motor, located between the engine and the 6 gear sequential transmission, operates as a generator in two different cases: during deceleration to feed the supercapacitor and during acceleration to directly power the rear electric motors.
The latter will only happen when the engine power and torque exceed the grip potential of the front wheels. The generator behaves like an advanced traction control system, redirecting the torque as electric energy to the rear wheels, to boost the acceleration and improve the handling rather than to simply limit the engine power.
Good to know
– Front wheels powered by a 300hp 1.6l turbo racing engine
– Rears wheels powered by two 60 hp standard Yaris Hybrid motors
– Just like in the TS030 HYBRID, the energy is stored in a supercapacitor
– Advanced traction control thanks to a third electric motor in the front
A resolutely sporty design
The Yaris Hybrid-R features a more aggressive and emotional interpretation of the design language that characterizes recent Toyota models. The Keen Look and Under Priority design philosophy is reinforced by the adoption of newly designed headlights, a wider front grille, and black and blue details that contrast with the white body color.
The specific bumper design incorporates two large air intakes and blue LED daytime running lights. The intakes greatly contribute to the front brake cooling, while the shape of the lower lip is designed to centrally channel underbody airflow.
The flared fenders house bespoke 18-inch TRD wheels fitted with 225/40 R18 Michelin Pilot Sport Cup tires featuring an asymmetrical tread design to complement the Yaris Hybrid-R sporty philosophy. Ideally suited for a mixed-use on the road and on the track, this choice of a high-performance tire is a symbol of the fruitful cooperation between Michelin and our racing team involved in the World Endurance Championship series.
Grooved and perforated brake discs are gripped by six-piston calipers in the front and four-piston calipers in the rear. Located on the rear pillar, a quick opening fuel cap makes it easier a quick refuel in the pits.
At the rear, Yaris Hybrid specific LED lights maintain the link with the production car. An exclusive spoiler is mounted on the roof and the redesigned bumper incorporates a large diffuser, with an exhaust pipe framed by two air extractors.
Good to know
– 18-inch TRD wheels
– Michelin Pilot Sport Cup tires for a mixed-use on the road and on the track
– A push-button on the steering wheel to select “road” or “track” mode
– Dual-tone Recaro Bucket seats
A racing cockpit
Matching the colors outside, the dual-tone Recaro bucket seats feature black leather side bolsters and blue Alcantara®. The same blue Alcantara® covers part of the door panels and the dashboard to give the interior a more cohesive, racing-inspired feel.
Ideally located high and close to the driver’s right hand, the shift lever of the sequential gearbox is set up to quickly change down gears by pushing the lever forwards, and to change up by pulling it back.
The sport steering wheel wrapped in Alcantara® welcomes a racing-inspired push button to select, at rest, either the “Track” or “Road” mode or while driving, the “Boost” function.
The driving position is ideally completed by a set of GT 86 sport pedals.
A ‘Road’ mode for day-to-day driving
The ‘Road’ mode is characterized by a reduction of the engine output and appropriate management of the amount of energy the supercapacitor can distribute to reduce fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. Accordingly, the turbo compression ratio of the 1.6l engine is reduced and the injection/ignition mapping adjusted.
The hybrid system works seamlessly with the 1.6 turbo petrol engine, especially during the start-up phase at low RPMs when the efficiency of the conventional engine not yet optimum.
The supercapacitor can release the energy recovered under braking for a maximum duration of 10 seconds, while the total power of the two electric motors is limited to 40 hp.
To maintain a sufficient state of charge in the supercapacitor, the third electric motor can be used at any time as a generator.
Depending on the state of charge of the battery, the Yaris Hybrid-R may also operate in full electric mode for short distances, especially during parking operations.
Good to know
– 40 hp for 10 seconds in “road” mode
– 120 hp for 5 seconds in “track” mode
– Torque vectoring: the amount of torque channeled to each rear wheel can vary thanks to the rear electric motors
– Advanced traction control: third electric motor redirects extra amount of torque as electric energy to the rear wheels
A ‘Track’ mode for track days
The ‘Track’ mode makes full use of the maximum system output of the engine and performance-oriented energy management. The 1.6 turbo engine develops 300 hp and provides a maximum torque of 420 Nm, while the rear electric motors can reach a combined maximum power peak of 120 hp for up to 5 seconds.
At low speeds, or in a curve, when the engine power and torque exceed the grip potential of the front wheels, the third electric motor can directly power the rear electric motors. The generator behaves like an advanced traction control system, redirecting the petrol engine extra amount of torque as electric energy to the rear wheels.
Rear electric motors – one per wheel “ can greatly influence the Yaris Hybrid-R handling characteristics during cornering by altering the distribution of torque between the left and right rear wheels.
Each engine can be used independently as a generator or a motor to achieve the same effect as an intelligent torque vectoring differential.
Depending on the radius of the curve, the system can send more torque to the outside rear wheel allowing higher cornering speeds into the corner (middle-speed curves), apply more braking force to the inside wheel (fast curves), or even brake and accelerate each wheel independently (slow curves) to adjust the yaw effect for a better line, to limit steering angle, and understeer.
With the particularly high system output of its hybrid powertrain, an energy management system strongly oriented towards the reach of maximum performance and the utilization of the engines for better handling, the Yaris Hybrid-R concept indicates a potential direction for the development of hybrid technology towards more driving pleasure.
Connecting the Real and Virtual worlds
The Yaris Hybrid-R concept utilizes the same CAN-Gateway ECU system developed for the GT86 coupe in collaboration with the video game developer Polyphony for the 6th version of the famous GranTurismo game to be launched before the end of the year.
Unveiled last spring at the Silverstone circuit at the occasion of the 15 years anniversary of the Gran Turismo game, the CAN-Gateway ECU system allows the drivers of the GT86 Coupe to record on a USB key, or on a Smartphone, the racing data collected while driving on the track. GPS data, longitudinal accelerations, steering angles, gear changes, engine speed, vehicle speed, and even water temperature are then used to reproduce the conditions of a real lap of the track on the video game console and compare it to virtual laps done with the game.
The Yaris Hybrid-R Concept takes this technology one step further, by utilizing the same principle but in a reverse way. We could imagine that the data of the laps recorded through the video game could be sent to the vehicle ECU. The electronic management of the car could potentially anticipate the driving conditions of each track, to optimize the phases of energy recovery, the operation of the traction control, the amount of energy used at each step and optimize the handling through the rear electric motors.
A 1.6l turbo engine designed for competition
The 1.6l turbo engine of the Yaris Hybrid-R concept was developed by Toyota Motorsport GmbH. It meets the FIA regulations for a global motor (Global Race Engine “ “GRE”). To reduce the cost of motorsport, the FIA has set up specific rules for a unique 4-cylinder engine designed to be used in a variety of motorsport disciplines.
Each discipline can set it’s own technical regulations, in terms of displacement between 1.6 and 2-liter, whether it is turbocharged or not and therefore with power levels ranging from 150 to 500 hp. Originally, even Formula 1 cars could have been equipped with this engine.
Since 2011, the GRE formula has been used as a 1.6l turbo in the World Rally Championship (WRC) and in the World Touring Car Championship (WTCC). Next year, it will make its debut in Formula 3 as an atmospheric 2.0-liter version.
The GRE engine developed by Toyota Motorsport GmbH has already undertaken extensive performance and reliability testing on the dynamometers at the technical center in Cologne. Upon completion of the development program, TMG will make the GRE available to private teams whilst also using it as a base for any possible Toyota motorsport program in the future.
Key TMG Global Race Engine Specifications
Engine Size: 1595 cm3
Fuel System Type: Direct Injection (up to 200 bar)
Air System Type: Turbo Garett GTR2560R (max boost pressure: 2.5 bar)
Air restrictor: 33 mm
Max. Power: + de 300 ch at 6000 rpm
Max. Torque: 420 Nm
Max. RPM: 7500 rpm
From the speech at the 2013 Frankfurt auto show
Daniele Schillaci, Senior Vice President Sales, and Marketing of Toyota Motor Europe
wow, what a great concept. As you can see, our dream car is based on the 3-door Yaris, but it’s very different under the skin. It still features hybrid efficiency but uses the recovered energy to give an extra performance boost during acceleration. Let me give you a few details.
Upfront is a 300 horsepower, 1.6 turbo Global Race Engine, developed by Toyota Motorsport. At the rear are two electric motors – each producing 60hp, so about 120hp on the rear wheels. Together, the Hybrid system delivers around 420hp. A super-capacitor is installed to allow energy to be recovered without restriction, and then quickly re-deployed. We believe a car like this would have two modes – Track and Road. In Track mode, the full 420hp would be available and all energy focused on delivering the best possible performance around a circuit, through short and intensive energy bursts. In Road mode, the Global Race Engine would have reduced power,and a lower amount of electrical energy would be deployed over longer periods for better fuel efficiency. Whichever way it is used, this concept is a Hybrid that is sure to bring a smile to the face of its drivers. But, as you know, our hybrid customers have been smiling for many years.
They have already discovered the new kind of driving pleasure that only hybrid can deliver. I’m talking about the sense of joy you get from the near-silent driving in urban areas, the impressive acceleration, and the strong positive feeling of calm and relaxation. And, of course, the financial efficiency of hybrid is bringing wide smiles to fleet owners and operators too. We’ve now sold more than 5.5million hybrid vehicles worldwide. And, when you remember that our hybrid customers are our strongest advocates, you can understand why more and more people are attracted by Toyota hybrids.
In Europe, the market for Hybrid products has increased by 45% between 2012 and 2013. In the same period, our Toyota hybrid sales have increased by 65%. This means our share of the hybrid market has increased from 65% in 2012 to 75% in 2013. This strong leadership position is also reflected in the market for plug-in hybrids. Viewed by customers as a better solution than pure electric vehicles, Toyota has taken a dominant position. In the first half of this year, the Prius Plug-in Hybrid is the best-selling model in this market. But we’re not stopping there.
By the end of 2015, we will launch 15 new or redesigned full hybrid products – if you also count one that features a Fuel Cell instead of an internal combustion engine. Furthermore, as recently announced, the next-generation Prius, when launched, will lead a new era of hybrid technology rollout for Toyota and Lexus products. These new hybrid powertrains will deliver improved fuel economy while being lighter, more compact and lower in cost. These powertrain improvements will also be complemented by the rollout of Toyotas New Global Architecture – to improve the overall product experience. In Europe, today’s Toyota hybrid success is driven by Yaris Hybrid and Auris Hybrid. In the B-Segment, more than 1/3 of Yaris sales are the Hybrid version. In the C segment, where the market has declined by 9%, Toyota Auris volumes have grown by over 40% – with 4 out of 10 Auris sold now hybrid! Don’t forget, this volume increase comes only from the 5-door hatchback.
Now, with the new Toyota Auris Touring Sports, we have the possibility to go even further. Clearly we are not paying lip-service to an environmental commitment – we are truly delivering in Europes most important segments. In fact, today I can announce that last month, Toyota achieved a European market share of more than 5% – a level we last achieved four years ago. This kind of success keeps our plants busy and our utilization rates high.